Hot words:Kidney FailureDialysisPatient Story

1.Urinary protein component testing

Urinary protein component testing is a special inspection item developed by our hospital for urine protein. It can diagnose the kidney damage at early stage, distinguish the renal tubular injury from glomerulus injury and know the degree of injury. It is more comprehensive urine test than others in China.

2. Renal tubular epithelial cells test in urine

After dyed the cells with the special dyestuff, we can see the activities of renal tubular epithelial cells in urine clearly, which is the direct evidence for the damaged renal tubular.

3. Complement test

The immune injury of antibody-mediated is the important mechanism for the glomerulus injury which comes into play through the complement in blood and leukocyte. Complement in blood can lead to the glomerulus through many ways. Complement system is made up by more than 20 kinds of plasma proteins and many kinds of receptor proteins and we increased the tests of complement C1q and CH50 based on the tests of complement C3 and C4. Especially for complement C1q, it is the first component of complement system C1. The decline of complement components means the complement system is activated, which is one of indicators of kidney disease.

4.Blood and urine NGAL tests (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin)

It is a new kind of secretory protein which keeps a close relationship with kidney. And now it is the newest and the most sensitive indicator for kidney injury. In clinic, it is used as follow:

A. Diagnose acute kidney injury at early stage;

B. Test the development of CKD;

C. Diagnose the Diabetic Nephropathy (DN), in the urine of DN patients, their content of mAlb has increased obviously.

D. Diagnose Lupus Nephropathy;

E. Diagnose renal tubular interstitial lesion;

F. Evaluate the injury degree of PKD.

5. Renal toxins indicator

In many Medical Institutions, kidney function tests only contain creatinine,urea and uric acid, but these elements are not enough to measure the glomerular filtration function and can not evaluate the condition of middle molecule and macromolecule toxins in body. The seven kinds of tests about kidney function include the three kinds of micromolecule toxins (creatinine, urea, uric acid), two kinds of middle molecule (microglobulin β2, cystatin C) and two kinds of mocromolecule toxins which are combined with protein (homocysteine, retinol-binding protein). From the tests result of the new patients in our hospital, we can see most of patients suffer from seriously out of limits of middle molecule and macromolecule toxins content.

6. Selective Proteinuria Index (SPI)

SPI can show that which kinds of kidney diseases the patients are experiencing and which kinds of medicines the patients are sensitive to. SPI≤0.1 means high selective proteinuria and show that the the glomerulus injury is slight. It also means patients will have an improvement after using hormone and immune stimulant and have a better prognosis.(commonly seen in minimal renal lesion, occasionally in Membranous nephropathy, mesangial proliferation glomerular nephritis, focal segmental sclerosing glomerulonephritis); SPI>0.2 means non-selective proteinuria which means that the glomerulus injury is serious and the treatment and prognosis is difficult to control.(commonly in Membranous nephropathy, IgA Nephropathy, FSGS).

7. Parathyroid Hormone ( PTH )

Parathyroid Hormone is the important indicator for renal osteopathy. The difficult thing for test is the fragment PTH, especially for PKD patients. Intact Parathyroid Hormone (iPTH) is the routine test for PTH in past. And the specificity of it is poor. The test technology in our hospital in the third generation PTH test which can test the whole length of 1-84 amino acid PTH molecules. It is better than iPTH in specificity and forecasting the death.

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